Section 2: Know how to support positive behaviour
Q8: Outline how behaviour can be interpreted as a form of expression. (2.1)
There are certain behaviours that can be portrayed that indicate a form of expression. A facial expression is usually used to portray an emotion to which another person would be able to recognise, for example, a smile could indicate happiness, whereas a frown could indicate sadness or confusion. The actions individuals use are also forms of expression and can indicate different emotions, such as a hug could show affection or reassurance, whereas throwing something can indicate frustration or anger. Gestures can also be used to beckon or get someone to leave, and using body language and demeanor can be a big tell in how the individual feels towards another person.
Q9: Identify a range of factors that may be associated with behaviour that challenges. (2.2)
From first glance, behaviour that challenges can seem very frustrating and not necessary, but there is a range of factors that are associated with displaying behaviours that challenge. An individual could feel anxious over a social interaction which could be new or not have been successful during the last encounter. Breakdowns in communication can also cause frustration for individuals with autism, as well as lack of sleep can cause irritability and tiredness. The characteristics of sensory overload can
also be present and physical pain may be affiliated with illnesses. Behaviour that challenges can be as simple as the individual being bored or anxious about how to entertain themselves or can be caused by a disruption of the routine. This behaviour can cause reactions such as hitting out, destroying property, self-harming like head-butting or self-biting, running away, refusing to move or climbing on furniture or walls.
Q10: Outline the advantages and disadvantages of using proactive strategies and reactive strategies to support positive behaviour in individuals with autism. (2.3)
By using proactive strategies, this can support within the preparation of getting staff and other individuals to understand how to handle change and behaviour that challenges. They can also make incidents less likely and show how to prevent them from happening. Proactive strategies help to provide a more stable environment making it more enjoyable for those with autism, as well as to prevent general disruption of the daily timetable. They can also help to support legal health and safety and safeguarding requirements.
The disadvantages of using proactive strategies could be the potential risk of creating a disruption where none previously was, can cause the staff or individual to become anxious and those with autism may detect there are measures to support the reduction of behavior that challenges to they may act in it to challenge the measures.
Reactive strategies can support preventing damage to others and objects around the individuals. They can control a situation in a professional way by ensuring the environment becomes safe, even if previously manic.
Despite trying to prevent damage to others, restraining individuals can also lead to accusations of inappropriate force. It can also cause a risk of traumatising the individual or injuring them or draw extra attention to the individual displaying behaviour that challenges which they might repeat to seek the attention again. It can also be quite dramatic and can cause frustration if the correct communication method is not used.
Q11: Explain the importance of positive reinforcement. (2.4)
Positive reinforcement can encourage those with individuals to undertake further experience and take on situations that may push them to become more independent, develop their communication skills or improve social interaction with others. It can also help to develop confidence and self-esteem and can push them to make more progress. Positive reinforcement can be achieved with verbal praise, specifically for where they may act kind or show restraint to an impulsive behaviour; enabling the individual to participate in activities due to their positive behaviour; giving rewards and influencing the individual as a good role model. Those who do not receive positive reinforcement may show displays of behaviour that challenges, lose self-confidence and independence and may be discouraged to take part in activities with others. Some may also react with anger or hurt which could cause anxiety and stress. It’s important to constantly be a good role-model and display person-centred approaches and praise when you can to get the behaviour you want to be displayed back to you.
Q12: Outline approaches that could be used to support positive behaviour. (2.5)
To support positive behaviour, a care worker can maintain a positive demeanour in general which can encourage others around them to mirror the behaviour and can reduce anxiety. They can also continue using person-centred values to provide a learning environment that reflects the needs of the individual. Staying inclusive and providing activities the individual enjoys as well as their preferred communication method. The care worker should positively enforce boundaries and enable the individual to make choices and share an enjoyable experience with the individual.